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Livestock productivity is affected by a wide range of technical, economic and social issues, and research at NRI has always taken a multi-disciplinary, problem-solving approach involving natural and social scientists at all stages.
- Pasture and fodder production and utilisation. In most parts of the developing world, animal production is based on pastures and fodders, rather than on concentrates. High-yielding plant species of high feeding quality must be efficiently used in order to optimise animal production.
- Improved supplementation of ruminant diets. Interactions between poor quality roughages such as crop residues and a range of higher quality supplements have been studied in the field and in the laboratory, to develop improved feeding systems. Further work should be aimed at predicting animal responses to supplements of known quality.
- Optimum management techniques. Existing animals can often be made more productive by employing improved and appropriate husbandry techniques. A common problem in development is a high mortality rate amongst young animals. Better livestock management can prevent excessive losses.
- Improved animal production systems. Better integration of animals and crops will increase productivity of both components in many areas of the world. Modified production systems need to be developed to respond to increasing human populations and to take advantage of improvements in the genetic potential of animals. Common property resources are important in livestock production in some areas of the developing world and ways must be found to improve their sustainable utilisation.
- Anti-nutritive factors in feedstuffs. Many animal feed resources, such as tree fodders, contain anti-nutritive factors (eg. tannins) which can reduce the productivity of livestock. Laboratory techniques have been developed to study these negative effects and further work is needed to improve the utilisation of such feeds.
- Processing of animal products. The development of efficient meat industries is needed to reduce human health risk and to maximise the use of meat and livestock products in developing countries. This is affected through hygiene and reduction of waste. Pollution of animal products with a range of toxins and inorganic compounds is a particular problem in South Asia. NRI has considerable experience in the development and processing of a wide range of healthy animal products.
Martin (Czech) Conroy
Prof. John Morton
A0465 Peri-urban livestock production in Asia
Project Leader: David Silverside
Funded by: DFID LPP (1997-2000)
A0563 Productivity of small animal species
Project Leader: Rob Paterson
Funded by: DFID NRRD (1996-2001)
A0730 Nutritive value of maize residues
Project Leader: Chris Wood
Funded by: DFID LPP (1997-2002)
C1198 Crop-animal systems typology development for South Asia
Project Leader: Derrick Thomas
Funded by: ICRISAT (1999-2002)
PATERSON R T, JOAQUÍN N, CHAMÓN K. AND PALOMINO E. (2001).
The productivity of small animal species in small-scale mixed farming systems
in sub-tropical Bolivia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 33(1):
NAGASHIRO C W, SAUCEDO A, ALDERSON E, WOOD C D. AND NAGLER M J (2001). Chemical composition, digestibility and aflatoxin content of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) cake produced in north-eastern Bolivia. Livestock Research for Rural Development 13 (2): 11p.
THOMAS D. (2001) (Editor). Crop-animal systems in Asia. Special Issue: Agricultural Systems. In press.
DEVENDRA C. AND THOMAS D (2001). Crop-animal systems in Asia: Importance of livestock and characterisation of agro-ecological zones. Agricultural Systems. In press.
DEVENDRA C. AND THOMAS D (2001). Smallholder farming systems in Asia. Agricultural Systems. In press.
DEVENDRA C. AND THOMAS D (2001). Crop-animal interactions in mixed farming systems in Asia. Agricultural Systems. In press.
PATERSON R T, JOAQUÍN N, CHAMÓN K AND PALOMINO E (2001). The productivity of small animal species in small-scale mixed farming systems in sub-tropical Bolivia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 33: 1-14.
PATERSON R T (2001). Especies de animales menores en sistemas de pequeña escala. In: Memorias, Talleres Finales del Proyecto de Especies Menores de Animales. Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Centro de Investigación Agrícola Tropical (CIAT). In press.
PATERSON R T (2001). Investigaciones con especies menores de animales en Sara e Ichilo. In: Memorias, Talleres Finales del Proyecto de Especies Menores de Animales. Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Centro de Investigación Agrícola Tropical (CIAT). In press.
PATERSON R T AND PLATA V (2001). Pastos y forrajes para animales de trabajo en Cochabamba. In: Memorias, Taller Final, PROMETA. Cochabamba, Bolivia: Proyecto Mejoramiento de Tracción Animal (PROMETA). In press.
THOMAS D, ZERBINI E, PARTHASASATHY RAO P AND VAIDYANATHAN A (2001). Increasing animal productivity on small mixed farms in South Asia: a systems perspective. Agricultural Systems (In press).
WOOD C D, ROMNEY D L. AND MURRAY A H. (2000). The use of in vitro gas production to investigate feed interactions in the digestibility of supplemented low quality forage-based diets. P105 -106. In: Gas production: fermentation kinetics for feed evaluation and to assess microbial activity. Meeting held at Wageningen International Conference Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 18 - 19 August 2000, proceedings published by The British Society of Animal Science, Midlothian, UK.119pp.
CONROY C, BAUSAR G, JAPE A AND RANGNEKAR D V (2000). The related effects of water scarcity and feed scarcity: a case study from Bhavnagar District, Gujarat. Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Goats, Tome II. 985.
CONROY C AND RANGNEKAR D V (2000). Constraints facing goat keepers in semi-arid India. . Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Goats, Tome II. 525-527.
CONROY C AND RANGNEKAR D V (2000). Experiences with on-farm supplementation trials in India, using a participatory approach. Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Goats, Tome II. 546-548.
CONROY C, RANGNEKAR D V, SHARMA M AND VADHER M H (2000). Use of a Prosopis juliflora pods/barley supplement to improve the reproductive performance of does. Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Goats, Tome II. 986-987.
DEVENDRA C, THOMAS D, JABBAR M A. AND ZERBINI E (2000). Improvement of livestock production in crop-animal systems in agro-ecological zones of South Asia. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya. 108p.
MORTON J AND MIHESO V (2000). Perceptions of Livestock Service Delivery among Smallholder Dairy Producers: Case Studies from Central Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development Volume 12, Issue 2.
MORTON J. AND SUTTON D (2000). Research and Development in Draught Animal Power: Some Conclusions from a Review of DFID Funding. Draught Animal News, 32.
MORTON J. AND WILSON R T (2000). The Institutional Marginality of Livestock Production Extension: the Case of Burkina Faso. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 12, Issue 1.
PATERSON R T, ROOTHAERT R L AND KIRUIRO E (2000). The feeding of leaf meal of Calliandra calothyrsus to laying hens. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 32: 51-61.
THOMAS D (2000). (Editor). Increasing Livestock Productivity in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in South Asia. Proceedings of a Workshop, 15-17 November 1999, ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. 183p.
THOMAS D AND ZERBINI E (2000). Increasing livestock productivity in mixed crop-livestock farming systems in South Asia; The project proposal. In: Proceedings of a Workshop on Increasing Livestock Productivity in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in South Asia (Ed. D. Thomas), 15-17 November 1999, ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. pp 6-21.
DAWSON J M, BUTTERY P J, JENKINS D, WOOD C D AND GILL M (1999). Effects of dietary quebracho tannin on nutrient utilisation and tissue metabolism in sheep and rats. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79: 1423 - 1430.
MORTON J, COULTER J, MIHESO V, STAAL S, KENYANJUI M. AND TALLONTIRE A (1999). Provision of Agricultural Services through Co-operatives and Self-Help Groups in the Dairy Sub-Sector of Kenya. NRI/MoA/KARI/ILRI Collaborative Research Report, Smallholder Dairy Research and Development Project.
PATERSON R T (1999). Pastos en las zonas altas de Cochabamba. In: Sánchez-Molero, J. (ed). 1 Taller Internacional de
PROMETA, UMSS, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Silsoe Research Institute (SRI): Silsoe, UK. pp 57-63.
PATERSON R T (1999). El Trabajo con Leguminosas Forrajeras de la Misión Británica en Bolivia. In: Meneses R. and Piérola L. (eds), Memorias, V Reunión Boliviana de Rhizobiología y Leguminosas, Sucre, Bolivia.13-15 Oct. 1999. Cochabamba, Bolivia: Asociación Boliviana de Rhizobiología y Leguminosas (ABRYL). pp 57-65.
PATERSON R T, KIRUIRO E AND ARIMI H K (1999). Calliandra calothyrsus as a supplement for milk production in the Kenya Highlands. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 31: 115-126.
THOMAS D (1999). Ruminants in crop-animal systems in developing countries: Beasts or benefactors ? Inaugural Lecture Series, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, UK. 23p.
THORNE P J, SUBBA D B, WALKER D H, THAPA B, WOOD C D AND SINCLAIR F L (1999). The Basis of Indigenous Knowledge of Tree Fodder Quality and its Implications for Improving the Use of Tree Fodder in Developing Countries. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 81: 119 - 131.
ZERBINI E AND THOMAS D (1999). Plant breeding strategies for improving the feed resource for ruminants. In: Emerging Trends for Livestock and Poultry Feeding Beyond 2000 AD. (Eds K.K. Singhal and S.N. Rai). Proceedings of the IX Animal Nutrition Conference, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India. Hi-Tech Computers, Karnal, India. pp 189-202.
WALKER D H, THORNE P J, SINCLAIR F L, THAPA B, WOOD C D AND SUBBA D B (1999). A systems approach to comparing indigenous and scientific knowledge: consistency and discriminatory power of indigenous and laboratory assessment of the nutritive value of tree fodder. Agricultural Systems, 62: 87-103
WOOD C D, NCUBE S, NYONI N, MORTON J AND COKER R (1999). Effects of harvest and post harvest practices on the production and nutritive value of maize and sorghum residues in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Livestock Production Programme projects in Zimbabwe, held at the Ingwe Lodge, Matobo, Zimbabwe, 22 - 23 February 1999. pp19 - 22.
DRYHURST N. AND WOOD C D (1998). The effect of nitrogen source and concentration on in vitro gas production using rumen micro-organisms. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 71: 131-143.
MATTHEWMAN R, ASHLEY S. AND MORTON J (1998). The Delivery of Information to Livestock Farmers in India: A Case Study. In: F Dolberg and P H Petersen (eds.) Maximising the Influence of the User: Alternatives to the Training and Visit System - Proceedings of a Workshop. Copenhagen, DSR Forlag, ISBN 87 7432 512 4.
MORTON J, KEENGWE M, KONDE A, CURRY J. AND MBUNGUA D (1998). How can participation contribute to effective research agendas? In: M Gill, T Smith, G Pollot, E Owen and T Lawrence (Eds). Foods, Lands and Livelihoods: Setting Research Agendas for Animal; Science. BSAS Occasional Publication No 21. Edinburgh.
WOOD C D, STEWART J L AND VARGAS J E (1998). Genetic variation in the nutritive value of Gliricidia sepium. 2. Leaf chemical composition and fermentability by an in vitro gas production technique. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 75: 125-143.